Child labour in India

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Child labour in India

Child labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity. Child labour deprives children from their childhood and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and the development of informal economy are considered to be the leading cause of Child labour in India.

In India, according to 1998 census, it is estimated that the total number of Child labour in India in the age of 4 to 15 years is 12.6 million from the total population of 25.3 million children at the age of 5 to 14 years. However, in 2009-10, a survey across the country found that the spread of Child labour in India decreased to 4.98 million children (or less than 2% of children aged 5 to 14). In the 2011 Census of India, the total number of Child labour in India was found at 5-14 years of age, 4.35 million, and the total child population of that age group was 259.66 million.  Child labour problem is only in India; it is Worldwide problem, about 217 million children work, much full time.

Indian law considers 64 industries to be dangerous for Child labour in India and it is a criminal offense to provide employment to children in such hazardous industries.
In 2001, an estimated 1% of all Child labour, or about 120,000 children in India, were in a dangerous job.The Constitution of India prohibits Child labour as a fundamental right under Article 24 in hazardous industries (but in non-hazardous industries).
Companies claim that they have strict policies against selling products produced by minority children to control Child labour in India, but there are many links in the supply chain, making it difficult.

In December 2014, the U.S. The Labor Department released a list goods manufactured by the Child labour, and  India included in those 74 countries of Child labour has been observed.

The term Child labour is best characterized as work that denies children’s of their childhood, their potential, and their dignity, and that is harmful to the physical and mental improvement of the child.

It includes to work that is mentally, physically, socially or ethically risky and harmful to children, or work whose effect capacity to go to school.

Law of Child labour in India

India’s Census 2001 office defines Child labour in India as a part of any financially productive activity with or without any compensation, wages or benefits of the child under the age of 17 years.Such participation can be either physical or mental or both.This work includes farm, family venture or any other economic activity (such as semi-time assistance or unpaid work such as milk or domestic consumption for farming and milk production).

Some child rights activists suggest that every child must be included in Child labour in India who is at school because he is a hidden child worker (Child labour in India).

However, UNICEF has said that there is a shortage of schools, classrooms, and teachers in rural areas in India where 90% of the problem of Child labour is found.There is only one teacher to teach students of all grades in 1 in 5 elementary schools.

After its independence govt. of India has passed several constitutional protections and laws on Child labour in India.

In the Directive Principles of Fundamental Rights and State Policy, the Constitution of India prevents child labor in any factory or mine or castle under the age of 14 or is contained in any other dangerous employment (Article 24).

It was also estimated in the Constitution that India will provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6 to 14 years of age from 1960.(Article 21 And 45)

Factories Act of 1948 :

Act prohibits the employment of children under 14 years of age in any factory. The law has also kept the rules that when, in any factory, before and for how long pre-adult adults can be employed for the age group of 15 to 18 years.

1952  Mine Act:

The Act prohibits the employment of children under the age of 18 years in the mine.

Child and Adolescent Labour(Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986:

The law prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 years in the hazardous occupations identified by the law in a list.The list expanded in 2006 and then in 2008. In 2016, this Act was amended ( applicable till July 30, 2016) to prohibit the employment of children under the age of 14 years in every business (apart from helping in the business of non-hazardous family, And of hair artists in the game). In addition, between 14-18 years, adolescents will be allowed to work in hazardous industries and processes.

Children’s Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act 2015:

This law has made this crime, punishable with the jail term, to keep a child in bondage for the purpose of employment for anyone.

Right to Children Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009:

The law provides free and compulsory education to all children of the age group of 6 to 14 years. It is also mandatory that 25 per cent seats should be allocated for disadvantaged groups and children of physically handicapped children in each private school.

Causes of Child labour in India –

According to UNICEF poverty is the biggest reason for Child labour in India.
Schools and teachers are unavailable.
Parents with limited resources,  can bear the cost of school fees.

Lack of aspiration –

It is critical for guardians and kids to comprehend that they can buckle down and make something incredible of themselves. Low desires by guardians and kids is a eworthy reason for youngster work on the grounds that in such a circumstance, being utilized in a neighborhood production line, or offering basic supply in the roads is the ordinary lifestyle. To these sorts of youngsters and guardians, achievement just has a place with a specific area or gathering of individuals.


A general public with many instructed individuals comprehends the significance of going to class and seeking after dreams. Children have the capacity and time to end up iceably whatever they seek to be. Lack of education, then again, makes it troublesome for some individuals to comprehend the significance of instruction. Ignorant individuals see instruction as a protection of the favored in the general public. They will hence offer help to children with the goal that they can go to class and manufacture strong establishments for future achievement. A similar perspective of life is seen as unskilled guardians who organize children adding to the upkeep of the family over going to class.

The high cost of education

Quality instruction is costly. To many guardians who live in servile destitution, need is given to giving sustenance to the family since the instruction is excessively costly, making it impossible to bear the cost of particularly when there are numerous children to pay school charges for. Rather than giving children a chance to remain at home in light of the fact that there is the absence of cash to send them to class, guardians select to make them function as untalented workers to help bolster the family. A few guardians can likewise just bear the cost of essential instruction which implies that children will be compelled to search for work since they can’t seek after their training further.


Kids originating from poor families can be compelled to work to help their kin and guardians or to remunerate family wage while spending more than guardians’ salary. This is particularly an issue in creating nations where guardians can produce wage because of business openings or absence of training. Kids can be procured in mines or used to acquire cash to do Hawking in the city, which are utilized to give fundamental needs like nourishment and dress for the family. Rather than going to class, kids can be utilized in industrial facilities to create a salary for the family. Such a training is a typical event in neediness stricken territories, which is with enormous production lines set up by worldwide organizations.

The demand of chief worker

The interest for untalented workers is aher reason for child work. Children are generally untalented and give a shoddy wellspring of work, making them an alluring alternative for some covetous bosses. Child work, by the excellence of being shoddy, builds the edge of benefits for such business visionaries whose exclusive goal is to benefit amplification regardless of the possibility that it comes to the detriment of morals and great business phones. These sorts of bosses can likewise drive children to work under troublesome conditions through control or conspicuous dangers.