Harappan Civilization

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Harappan Civilization

Place and River of Harappa civilization –

  1. लोथल : भोगवा नदी
  2. मोहन्जोदारो : सिंधु नदी
  3. हडप्पा : रावी नदी
  4. कालीबंगा : घग्गर नदी
  5. रंगपुर : मादिर नदी
  6. रोपड़ : सतलज नदी
  7. बनमाली : सरस्वती नदी

Harappan Civilization Introduction – 

In ancient times people used stone tools and used as weapons. After this person started using the metals was there. Copper was the first metal that a person used to make tools. Gradually, in the Indian sub-continent, many civilizations developed And were based on the use of copper tools. They also used bronze for this purpose which is a  mixture of copper and tin. This phase of history is known as the Chalcolithic era. (Chalco i.e. copper And Lithik i.e. stones).
Harappa civilization, which is also called the civilization of the Indus Valley is a part of the Chalcolithic era.Harappa civilization was discovered in 1920.22 when two of its most important digging was done at the sites. These places were located on the banks of river Ravi, Harappa civilization and Mohenjodaro civilization settled along the Indus River. The first place was excavated by D. Rasahani by and the other’s R.D. By Banerjee Harappa civilization based on archaeological discoveries. The civilization has been considered between the era of 2600 BC-1900 BC and this is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. It is also called ‘Indus Valley Civilization because, in the beginning of its settlement, all the Indus river or its associates were located in or near Plains near the rivers.
But nowadays it is called the Harappa civilization, because Harappa was the first place, from where the existence of this civilization came to light. Additionally, recent archaeological discoveries indicate that this civilization spreads to the Indus river entire plain. That’s why it is better that we call the name of Harappa civilization. This is India’s first civil civilization and it is the contemporary of other ancient civilizations of the world, such as Mesopotamia and Egypt. The script of the Harappan period has yet been read.
The emergence of the Harappa civilization was sudden. Its evolution is gradually from the Neolithic era rural civilization. It is believed that the Indus River fertile as a result of using superior techniques to take maximum yield from the field. As a result, such a growing crop would have arisen, to make the people of the non-urban population and administrative class etc., food and other product will be available for their livelihood. From this, far-flung territories have also helped in increasing exchange and business relations.

Emergence and expansion Of Harappan Civilization – 

Before the Harappa civilization, people lived in small villages. As time went on, as well as small towns and these towns developed the developed cities during the Harappan period. The whole period of Harappan period is divided into three phases
(1) Early Harappan period (3500 BC to 2600 BC)
(2) Mature Harappan period; 2600 BC-1900 BC) this is the stage when we get a well-developed city with structures made of rusty bricks in the kiln, indigenous and foreign trade and various types of crafts.
(3) North Harappan period (1900 BC-1400 BC) – This was the era of decline, during which the cities were settling down and the trade ended, due to which gradually the main features of urbanization were vanquished.

Geographical expansion of Harappa civilization
This civilization was spread throughout the region, which included only the modern state of India, such as Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Western Uttar Pradesh, but also part of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Some of the main places of this civilization are: – Janda and Kashmir; Shorthulai in Afghanistan; Harappa in West Punjab (Pakistan); Mohanjodaro and Chanhudo in Sindh; Kalibangan in Rajasthan; Lothal and Dholavira in Gujarat; Banvali and Rakhigadi in Haryana; Daimabad in Maharashtra, while the Sukkangendare Harappa civilization situated on the Makran coast (near the border of Pakistan-Iran) and the western end of the West Alamgir is its far eastern border in western Uttar Pradesh. The place of populations indicates that Harappa Kalibangan (at the edge of the Ghaggar-Hakra river, which is usually associated with the Lupit River Saraswati), the pivot of Mohanjodaro was the main site of this civilization, and most of the population was located in this area was.

The land of above area was flat and was dependent on monsoon and Himalayan rivers for irrigation and water supply. The specific geographical features and agriculture animal husbandry related to this region were the key traits of this area.

Town planning Of Harappan Civilization –

The Very similarity has been observed here in the city plan, although there are regional variations in some places. Uniformity is seen in the plan of cities, streets, houses structures, bricks, and drains etc. Almost all the main sites (Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan and others) have been divided into two divisions- the fort built on a high side towards the west and the lower city in the eastern part of the population. There are large structures in the fort which may be found in the centers of official or religious rituals. Will work as Residential buildings are situated in the lower town. The structure of the roads was constructed in such a way that they used to cross each other on the right angle. These cities are divided into several residential sections. The main route has been linked with the small lanes. The gates of the houses were open on the main roads and opened in these narrow streets. Most of the houses were made of ripe bricks in the furnace. There were many rooms in big houses, which also had a square courtyard.These homes have their own private wells, kitchens, and bathrooms. In the heart of the house, it is found that the rich people lived in large houses and people living in a room of houses and barracks probably belonged to poor people of the society.The drainage system of people of the Harappan period was very systematic and developed. In every house, there were drains, which were found by going through the gully drain. These drains were covered with bricks made of bricks (manholes) with stones made of stone (which could be removed for cleaning) which were made on the side of the alleys at regular intervals. This shows that those people had good knowledge of cleanliness science.

Economic Of Harappan Civilization
The whole of Harappan civilization was based on its flourishing economic activities, such as agriculture, arts, crafts, and trade. The fertile Cachar land of the Indus River contributed heavily to the excessive agricultural produce here. It received the support of the people of Harappa on internal and external, both in developing industries. Animal-farming along with agriculture was the basis of Harappa’s economy. Harappa met at places like Mohenjodaro and Lothal pantry, went to work in the grain storage. The main food crops were wheat, barley, sesame, mustard, peas and mustard and so on. Cotton was aher major crop here. A piece of woven fabric has been obtained in Mohanjodaro. In addition to grains, meat and livestock were also part of the diet of the people of Harappa civilization.

Industry and crafts Of Harappan Civilization

People of Harappa civilization were familiar with almost all kinds of metals in addition to iron. They made things different from other sources. But there was more emphasis on the use of  silver ornaments, utensils etc. . Copper tools and weapons are also found in large numbers. Normal indigenous fields include hill squads, saws, camels, chalks, barges and other sharp heads and so on. It is a matter of e that the weapon created by the hood will be mostly safeguarded, as the sword is found in the defense of the weapons. Gold came from the lowlands of Himalayan rivers and from south India, and silver from Mesopotamia. One of the most famous specimens in this regard is a statue of Mohenjodaro, made of bronze. This is a statue of a naked woman, whose one hand is on the buttocks, the other is swinging in the air in the currency of the other. It’s wearing a lot of bangles.
Evidence of pearl shoppers in the Chunnarh and Lothal Gold and silver bead have also been found. The work of enamel on the carving of elephant teeth and motions, grapes and other decorative matches was also carried out. A famous artistic idol in the artwork of the Harappan era is an idol made of a bearded man’s stone found in Mohenjodaro. Its eyes are supreme as if this meditation is in the mood of meditation. Mud sculptures have been received in a large number of men and women from many places of Harappa. The number of women’s idols is more than the idols of men and it is believed that these are direct evidence regarding the worship of Matheshdevi. Apart from this, samples of various types of idols have been received by birds, monkeys, dogs, sheep, pets, hump and humpable bulls. Making pottery was also a major industry of people of Harappan era. They were made primarily on wheelchairs, and after red color, they were decorated with black color. These are found in various sizes and shapes. In the pictorial specimens, the figures of different thicknesses, leaf samples, palm trees and peepal trees, birds, fish, and animals etc. are also made on pottery. The people of Harappa used to make different types of seals. More than two thousand seals have been received from various places. These seals were usually in a square shape and made of clay. It is a matter of e that these seals had pictures of many animals, but there was no horse figure on any seal.  Apart from different types of animals, some marks of the Harappan script are also made on Harappan seals, but this script has yet been read. The most famous seal is that which has a picture of a man-god with horns. It has three heads and it is sitting in the currency of Padmasan and it is surrounded by animals like elephants, tigers, rhinos, and buffalo all around. Many scholars consider this as an ancient form of Lord Pashupati (God of animals), but some scholars have differences with this idea.