History of Bihar

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History of Bihar

Bihar is an Indian state which is considered to be part of Eastern and also Northern India.  Bihar Maidan is divided by Ganges river which flows from west to east. Bihar is the integration of three major distinct regions, it is Magadha, Mithila, and Bhojpur.

The official languages of the state are Hindi and Urdu; Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, Badgeika, and Angika (Maithili is only one of those which have been officially accepted by the government) in other languages commonly used within the state.

In ancient and classical India Bihar, it is considered as the center of power, education, and culture. India’s first Empire from Magadha, the Maurya Empire, and one of the most widely followed religions in the world, Buddhism originated. The Magadha Empire, especially under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, is a major part of the integration of South Asia under a central regime. Aher area of Bihar is Mithila, which was the center of Brahminic education and the center of the Vidyad empire.



The name of Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali words, Vihar (Devanagari: Vihar), which means “residence”. In this area, the present state was included in the Buddhist Vihar, ancient and medieval period, the residence of Buddhist monks.

Mithila was first established by the Indo-Aryan people, who established the Vidya Empire. During the late Vedic period (c.1100-500 BC), the Vedha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla. The kings of the Vayadhe Empire was called Janak. The Sita daughter of one of Mithila’s Junkas is described as the wife of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by Valmiki. The Videha Kingdom later was its capital in Vajishi city, which is also in Mithila, which became involved in the Vajaji agreement. Vazaji had a Republican rule, where kings were elected from the number of kings.

Magadha (modern-western Bihar) became the center of power, education, and culture in India.
Two famous kings of this lineage were Bimbisara and his son Ajatshatru, who had imprisoned his father for climbing the throne. Ajatashatra founded the city of Pataliputta which later became the capital of Magadha. They declared war and won the victory.

The first empire of India, the Maurya Empire, was changed to the Nand dynasty, the Maurya empire and the religion of Buddhism are emerging in this area which now makes modern Bihar. In 325 BC, the Maurya empire, which was formed in Magadha, was established by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. Its capital was in Pataliputra (modern Patna). Maurya Emperor, Ashok, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna), is considered one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.

 In the Magadha, the Gupta Empire is called the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion and Indian philosophy.


Due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, Vihar and Nalanda and Vikramshila famous universities were destroyed and Magadha, Buddhism fell into decline.

In 1540, the great Pathan leader of Sasaram Sher Shah Suri defeated the Mughal army from the Mughals to the northern India, Sher Shah of the Emperor Humayun announced his capital Delhi.

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the right of inheritance(Diwani right) (revenue or tax authority) for Bihar, Bengal, and Odisha. Fertile land, rich resources of water and skilled labor, attracted foreign imperialists, especially the Dutch and British people in the 18th century. Many agricultural based industries have been started by foreign entrepreneurs in Bihar. Bihar became part of the British Presidency of British India till 1912 when the Bihar and Orissa provinces were created as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar celebrated its birthday on March 22 as Bihar Day.