Uttarakhand state

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History of Uttarakhand state

Uttarakhand state-

Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) is a state located in north India.Uttarakhand state was created on November 9, 2000, as the 27th state of the  India. From 2000 to 2006 Uttarakhand state was known as Uttaranchal. In January 2007, the official name of the Uttaranchal state was changed to Uttarakhand.

Before Uttarakhand state formation in 2000, this region was a part of Uttar Pradesh. Traditional Hindu texts and ancient literature have been described this region as Uttarakhand. In Hindi and Sanskrit, Uttarakhand means northern region. The holy places of Hindu religion in the state and the largest rivers of India are the important places of Ganga and Yamuna, respectively, in Gangotri and Yamunotri and on the banks of the Vedic culture, there are many important places of pilgrimage in Uttarakhand state.

Uttarakhand state boundaries are in touch with Tibet in the north and Nepal in the east. Himachal Pradesh in the west and Uttar Pradesh in the south is the state with its border.

Dehradun is the capital of Uttarakhand state.Uttarakhand state’s high court is in Nainital.

Uttarakhand state has been divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon.

During the medieval period, Uttarakhand state area was consolidated under the Kumaon empire and the Garhwal empire.
In 1816, most of the modern Uttarakhand state was handed over to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli.

However, this area (Uttarakhand state) was given the name of Uttranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party-led Central and Uttar Pradesh government. But In August 2006, the Union Cabinet of India approved the demand of Uttarakhand state assembly and key members of the Uttarakhand state movement to rename Uttaranchal as the Uttarakhand state.

History of Uttarakhand state

According to historical details, Kedar was divided into many strongholds (fort). There were different Kings of these strongholds who had their own lordship area. According to historians, the king of Pandar Dynasty, under these subdivisions, established the integrated Garhwal kingdom and made Srinagar its capital. The Garhwal name of Kedar Khana has become popular only. In 1803, the Gorkha army of Nepal attacked the Garhwal state and subdued it. This attack is popularly known as Gore Dulal in Lokjan. Maharaja Garhwal sought help from the British for the liberation of the state under the control of the Gorkha army of Nepal. The British army ultimately defeated the Gorkha army of Nepal near Dehradun in 1815 and this is a great change in Uttarakhand state history. But due to the inability of the Maharaja of Garhwal to express the inability to pay the fixed expenditure of the expenditure of the expenditure, the British did not entrust the entire Garhwal state to King Garhwal and join the eastern part of Alakananda-Mandakini under the rule of East India Company, to the Maharaja of Garhwal Only the Tehri district ( the current Uttarkashi) returned the land. The then Maharaja of Garhwal Sudarshan Shah established his capital on 28 December 1815 at the place of Tehri, which was a small village on the confluence of Bhagirathi and Bhilanga rivers. After a few years, his successor, Maharaja Narendra Shah, founded the second capital named Narendranagar at the place called Oodathali. From 1815 onwards, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal (present Chamoli district and Rudraprayag district along with Agasthamuni and Ukhimath Development block) were under British and Tehri Garhwal Maharaja was under Tehri.

The merger of Tehri State in the Indian Republic was held in August 1949 and Tehri was declared a district of the then United Provinces (Uttar Pradesh). With the view of the development of marginal areas in the background of the 1962 India-China war, in 1960, three frontier districts Uttarkashi, Chamoli, and Pithoragarh were formed. As a new state, Uttar Pradesh reorganization (Uttar Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000) Uttarakhand was established on November 9, 2000. Hence this day is celebrated as the establishment day in Uttarakhand.

By 1969 all the districts of Uttarakhand, except Dehradun, were under Kumaun Mandal. In 1969, the Garhwal Mandal was established, which was headquartered at Pauri. In 1975, the Dehradun District was included in the Meerut family, it was included in the Garhwal Mandal. This has reduced the number of districts in the Garhwal Circle to five. In Kumaon Mandal, three districts were included in Nainital, Almora, Pithauragarh. Uddham Singh Nagar in 1994 and Rudraprayag, Champawat and Bageshwar districts were formed in 1997, before the formation of the Uttarakhand state, six districts were included in the Garhwal and Kumaon Mandal. After the merger of Haridwar district in Uttarakhand state, there are seven districts in the Garhwal Mandal and six districts in Kumaon Mandal. From 1 January 2007, the name of the state has been changed from “Uttaranchal” to “Uttarakhand”.

Geography of Uttarakhand state

Total geographical area of Uttarakhand state is 53,483 sq km

Most of the northern part of the Uttarakhand state is a part of the Himalayan range, which is covered with high Himalayan peaks and glaciers, while the lower foothills are covered with dense forests, which were first exploited by the British timber merchants and forest contractors after independence.

The two most important rivers of India, Ganga and Yamuna are born in this state and reaching the plains, they take water from many mounds of ponds, lakes, and glaciers, in many ways.

Flower Valley National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Uttarakhand state is situated on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, and here there is a lot of change in the weather and vegetation with altitude, where there is a sub-tropical forest at the highest elevations ranging from glaciers to lower elevations.

The highest elevations are covered with snow and stones. Below them, grasslands and shrubs from 5,000 to 3,000 meters. Temperate coniferous forests, western Himalayan sub alpine coniferous forests grow some below the tree plant. At an altitude of 3,000 to 2,600 meters, the temperate West Himalayan broad-wed forests are at a height of 2,600 to 1,500 meters. Below 1,500 meters is the Himalayan subtropical pine forest.
There are moist deciduous forests in the Gangetic plains and the drying plains covered with low lying areas of Savaiya and Ghasland Uttar Pradesh are covered. It is known in the local areas as Bhabhar. Most of the lower land has been cleared for cultivation.

The following National Parks of India are in this state, such as the Jim Corbett National Park (the oldest National Park of India) in Ramnagar, Nainital district, Florian Valley National Park and Nanda Devi National Park in Chamoli district and both together with UNESCO World Heritage The sites are, Rajaji National Sanctuary in Haridwar district and Govind cattle Vihar and Gangotri National Park Ansak Aashi is in the district.

Mandal and Districts of Uttarakhand state

There are 13 districts in Uttarakhand which are grouped into two circles: Kumaon Mandal and Garhwal Mandal.

There are six districts of Kumaon Mandal:

Almora District
Udham Singh Nagar District
Champawat District
Nainital district
Pithoragarh district
Bageshwar district

There are seven districts of Garhwal Circle:

Uttarkashi district
Chamoli Garhwal District
Tehri Garhwal District
Dehradun District
Pauri Garhwal District
Rudraprayag district
Haridwar District